Jessenius Faculty of Medicine
in Martin
Comenius University in Bratislava

Pregradual study

Distance Learning

Preparation and publication of study materials for distance learning of the subject IMMUNOLOGY and MICROBIOLOGY 1 are supported by KEGA projects:

038UK-4/2019 Creation of teaching materials for thepractical teaching of immunology forstudents studying in English language

032UK-4/2019 Model laboraroty for teaching of microbiology

QUESTIONS Week 12., 13., 14. Microbiology and Immunology - self-study

QUESTIONS IMMUNOLOGY

Immunology - 12. lecture

1. The immune response to an autoantigen is called:

2. A process in which an infection is related to the subsequent development of an autoimmune disease is:...............................................

3. Which areas in the body are referred to as immunologically privileged sites?

4. What is neoantigen?

 

Immunology 13. lecture

1. Based on the donor-recipient relationship: what is the name of an antigen derived from a donor that is genetically identical to the recipient?

2. What is the name of a transplant from a donor of the same species but not genetically identical to the recipient?

3. What is the name of a transplant from an individual of another species (eg. an animal)?

4. Explain the term hyperacute rejection:

 

Immunology lecture – week 14.

1. What is the role of interferons in immunotherapy?

2. Describe mode of action of NSAIDs.

3. What is the role of glucocorticoids in immunotherapy?

 

Immunology 12. practical

1. What are autoantibodies?

2. How are autoimmune diseases divided according to the organs and tissues they affect?

3. Write examples of systemic autoimmune diseases:

4. Write examples of organ-specific autoimmune diseases:

 

Immunology 13. practical

1. What causes primary immunodeficiencies?

2. What causes secondary immunodeficiencies?

3. The typical signs that may indicate the presence of primary immunodeficiency are:

4. Which primary B cell immunodeficiency is best known?

5. Which immunodeficiency is the most severe primary immunodeficiency?

 

QUESTIONS MICROBIOLOGY

Microbiology 12. lecture

1. What is capsid?

2. How virus becomes enveloped?

3. Define abortive viral infection.

4. What are typical properties of non enveloped vireuses?

5. What are typical properties of enveloped vireuses?

 

Microbiology 13. lecture

1. Define term“ dimorphic fungi“.

2. What is eumycotic mycetoma?

3. What selective medium is used for cultivation of fungi?

4. What is mode of action of azoles?

 

Microbiology 14. lecture

1. Descibe trophosoites and cysts in life cyclus of protozoa.

2. Giardia, Trichomonas and Trypanosoma are classified as .................................................

4. Naegleria is classified as...........................................

5. „Flat, ribbon like body, body consists of a chain of segments (proglottids), which can be immature, mature or gravid“. Thic is characteristic of ......................................................

 

Microbiology practical 12

Anaerobic cultivation

1. Divide and define anaerobic bacteria based on their relation to oxygen?

2. Which anaerobic bacteria are able to form spores?

3. What are the names of the special liquid culture medium (broth) and solid culture medium (agar) used for culture of anaerobic bacteria?

4. Fill in:

The cultivation of anaerobic bacteria use special liquid and solid culture media to which various substances are added to reduce the redox potential of the culture medium. These substances are called ................

The time of cultivation of anaerobic bacteria in comparison with the cultivation of aerobic bacteria is ............ (prolonged/shortened) that is the cultivation time of anaerobic bacteria is about ....... hours.

Anaerobic jar used to create an anaerobic environment is called ........

Serratia marcescens is facultative anaerobic gram-negative rod shape bacterium used in anaerobic cultivation to .............. in the ................ method.

5. Which four methods are used to create an anaerobic environment for anaerobic cultivation?

 

Microbiology practical 13

ATB susceptibility testing (Determinig of sensitivity or resistance of bacteria to antibiotics)

1. Which three basic methods are used to test antibiotic susceptibitlity?

2.  What are the names of the special liquid culture medium (broth) and solid culture medium (agar) used for ATB susceptibility testing?

3. Which of the methods/tests used to test antibiotic susceptibility allows/allow to determine the MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration)?

4. Which of the methods/tests used to test antibiotic susceptibility is/are based on measuring the diameter of the inhibition zone?

5. Fill in the method/test.

Antibiotic disks are used in ....... (method/test).

Plastic strips are used in ....... (method/test).

Microtiter plates are used in .........(method/test).

A symmetrical inhibition round zone can be seen in .............(method/test).

A symmetrical inhibition ellipse zone can be seen in ............(method/test).

 

 

 

 

Week 14. Microbiology and Immunology - self-study materials

Immunology

Lecture week 14

 Immunotherapy

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Microbiology

Lecture week 14

Parasites - structure, therapy

Week 13. Microbiology and Immunology - self-study materials

Immunology

Lecture week 13

 Tumor immunity

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practical week 13

Immunodeficiency - laboratory diagnosis

 

Microbiology

lecture week 13

Fungi - structure, therapy

Fungi - powerpoint presentation

Practical week 13

Antibiotics susceptibility testing

Week 12. Microbiology and Immunology - self-study materials

Immunology

lecture week 12

Transplant Immunity

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practical week 12

Autoantibodies. Immunofluorescence.

 

Microbiology

lecture week 12

Viruses - structure

Antivirotics

Viruses - powerpoint presentation

Practical week 12

Anaerobic bacteria - cultivation

QUESTIONS Week 11. Microbiology and Immunology - self-study

Immunology lecture week 11

1. What is an immunization?

2. How is specific protection induced?

3. What does passive immunization mean?

4. What does active immunization mean?

5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of active and passive immunization?

 

Immunology practical week 11

1. Differences between primary vaccination and revaccination:

2. Live attenuated vaccines contain:

3. Inactivated vaccines contain:

4. Describe ways to induce an active immunity.

5. Describe ways to induce a passive immunity.

 

Microbiology lecture week 11

1. Fill in:

 ................................ immunity is protection that is produced by the person’s own immune system. This type of immunity usually lasts for many years, often during a lifetime.

 

................................ immunity is protection by products produced by an animal or human and transferred to another human, usually by injection. Often provides effective protection, but this protection wanes (disappears) with time, usually within a few weeks or months.

 2. Fill in:

Monoclonal antibody is produced from a single clone of .................., so these products contain antibody to only one antigen or closely related group of antigens.

3. Fill in:

Live attenuated vaccines are produced by modifying a disease-producing (“wild”) ................... or ................................. in a laboratory. The resulting vaccine organism retains the ability to replicate (grow) and produce immunity, but usually ................  .............  cause illness.

4. Fill in:

Protein-based vaccines include .................... (inactivated bacterial toxin) and subunit or subvirion products.

5. Fill in:

Most polysaccharide-based vaccines are composed of pure ..........  ................. ................... from bacteria.

 

Microbiology practical 11

1.Catalase activity testing in microorganisms (bacteria)

Fill in:

Catalase test is used to identify microorganisms that produce the enzyme .......... This enzyme detoxifies  ......... into ........ and ........

Catalase test is used in diagnostics to distinguish between ............  and ............

A positive catalase test will show .........

Streptococcus spp. (and Enterococcus spp.) are catalase- ............(positive or negative?)

Streptococcus pyogenes is catalase-............(positive or negative?)

Staphylococcus aureus is catalase-.............(positive or negative?)

Staphylococcus epidermidis is catalase-.................(positive or negative?)

 

2. Coagulase activity testing in microorganisms (bacteria)

Fill in:

Coagulase test is used to identify microorganisms that produce the enzyme ..............This enzyme converts  ............ to ...........

Coagulase test is used for differential diagnostics of   ............  and ............

To demonstrate the production of bound coagulase is used ............ method.

A positive coagulase test of bound coagulase will show ...........

To demonstrate the production of free coagulase is used ............ method.

A positive coagulase test of free coagulase will show ...........

Staphylococcus aureus is coagulase-............. (positive or negative?)

Staphylococcus epidermidis is coagulase-.................(positive or negative?)

 

3. Oxidase activity testing in microorganisms (bacteria)

Fill in:

Oxidase test is used to identify microorganisms containing the enzyme  .......... that transfers ..............

Oxidase test is used in diagnostics to distinguish between ................ and ..................

A positive oxidase test will show ................. (strip of filter paper) or ................(Kovacs reagent on culture plate).

Neisseria spp. are oxidase- .............. (positive or negative?)

Moraxella catarrhalis is oxidase-...............(positive or negative?)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is oxidase- ............. (positive or negative?)

Enteric bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) are oxidase- ...............(positive or negative?)

 

4. Proteolytic activity testing in microorganisms (bacteria)

Fill in:

Proteolytic activity testing is used to identify some bacteria that can produce .......... (enzymes) that are able to dissolve ............. to ..............

To demonstrate the proteolytic activity of bacteria can be used  different methods which are as follows:

1.                                 2.                                3.

E. coli is protease-..............(positive or negative?)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is protease- ............. (positive or negative?)

 

5. Toxin production testing in microorganisms (bacteria)

Fill in:

Elek´s method (test) is ..................... which is used to proof .............. toxin production by toxigenic strain of .................. (bacterium?) in conditions ........ (in vivo or in vitro?)

A positive toxin production by toxigenic strain of bacterium using the Elek´s method (test) will show ..................

An experiment in an animal model to demostrate toxigenicity in certain bacteria is the proof  in conditions ......... (in vivo or in vitro?) This test is called ................

A positive toxin production by bacterium  using the animal model will show: test animal .......... and control animal with the aplication of antitoxin .........

 

 

Week 11. Microbiology and Immunology - self-study materials

Immunology

lecture week 11

Autoimmunity

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practical week 11

Immunology of Vaccination - Immune Status Tests

 

Microbiology

lecture week 11

Vaccines

Practical week 11

Biochemical properties of bacteria - identifications of tools of pathogenicity - enzymes and toxins

QUESTIONS Week 10. Microbiology and Immunology - self-study

Immunology 10. lecture

1. According to Coombs and Gell, hypersensitivity reactions associated with IgE antibody formation, mast cell degranulation and basophils include:

2. Which type of hypersensitivity reactions is the mechanism responsible for contact dermatitis?

3. Write at least three examples of diseases associated with cytotoxicity:

4. Characteristics of hypersensitivity reactions III. type are:

5. Write an example of hypersensitivity I. type of local and systemic reaction:

 

Immunology 10. practical

1. Which methods are used to demonstrate specific cellular immunity in vivo?

2. Which methods are used to demonstrate specific cellular immunity in vitro?

3. What is turberculin?

4. At what time interval after the application of tuberculin in the skin test is the result available and what is measured?

5. What is measured in IGRA tests and what are the advantages of this method over skin tests?

 

Microbiology lecture 10

1. What is herd immunity? :

2. Characterize Attenuated vaccines:

 

3. Fill in: .....................  ................... include organisms that are dead because of treatment with physical or chemical agents. In the case of toxins, they will havebeen inactivated (toxoids).

 

4. Fill in: Disinfection describes a process that eliminates many or all pathogenic microorganisms, except ......................................  ........................................

 

5. Preventionof infection by inhibiting or arresting the growth and multiplication of germs (infectious agents) is called ..............................

 

Microbiology practical 10

1. On Endo agar, the biochemical property of some bacteria .............. (write which group of bacteria) – the lactose fermentation causes the visible changes of the bacterial colonies.

Fill in: On Endo agar, the lactose fermentig bacteria grow in ....... colonies (write the color of the colonies) and the non-lactose fermenting bacteria grow in .............colonies (write the color of the colonies)

 

2. On Deoxycholate-citrate agar (DCA), the biochemical properties of some bacteria .............. (write which group bacteria) – the lactose fermentation and the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production cause the visible changes of the bacterial colonies.

Fill in: On DCA, the lactose fermenting bacteria grow in ....... colonies (write the color of the colonies) and the non-lactose fermenting bacteria grow in  ..............colonies (write the color of the colonies).

Fill in:  On DCA, the H2S producing bacteria cause  ............... (write the color of the colonies)

 

3. On Triple sugar iron (TSI) agar, the biochemical properties of some bacteria .............. (write which group bacteria)  – the carbohydrate fermentation, the gas production and the H2S production cause the visible changes of the culture medium.

Fill in: On TSI agar, the carbohydrate fermenting bacteria change the color of the culture medium from........ to .........

Fill in: On TSI agar, the gas producing bacteria cause............

Fill in: On TSI agar, the H2S producing bacteria cause ...........

 

4. Fill in:

Mannitol salt agar (MSA) is used to..............

Positive result (evidence) on MSA causes ................ (write the color change of the culture medium)

 

5. Fill in:

Simmon´s citrate agar is used to .......................

Positive result (evidence) on Simmon´s citrate agar causes ................ (write the color change of the culture medium)

 

6. Fill in:

Christensen´s urea agar is used to .............................

Positive result (evidence) on Christensen´s urea agar causes ............... (write the color change of the culture medium)

 

7. What are Micro-La-Tests (kits)?

Week 10. Microbiology and Immunology - self-study materials

Immunology

lecture week 10

Hypersensitivity Reactions

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practical week 10

Tuberculin Skin Test (Mantoux), IGRA

 

Microbiology

lecture week 10

Principle of Vaccination. Disinfection

Practical week 10

Biochemical properties of bacteria - part 1.

Week 7-8. Microbiology and Immunology - self-study materials

Immunology

lecture week 7

 Lymphocytes - activation. APC

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practical week 7

 New methods in Immunology - ELISA, Western blot

 

Microbiology

lecture week 7 and 8

Antibiotics

Practical week 7

Cultivation

QUESTIONS 7th and 8th WEEK - Microbiology and Immunology self-study

Immunology

Lecture 7

What is an immunological synapse?

Which cells recognize pMHC class I complexes and which cells recognize pMHC II. classes?

Characterize T-independent antigens:

Characterize T-dependent antigens:

What does anatoxin mean?

 

Practical 7

Give examples of immunoanalytical methods:

Which component of the reaction must be bound to the ELISA microtiter plate wall if ELISA is used to detect antibodies?

Why is the Western blot confirmation test?

A method for examining cellular immunity components that measure activated lymphocytes and released cytokines is called:

A method that allows the amplification of a specific part of nucleic acid in vitro is called:

 

Microbiology

Lecture 7 and 8

1. Antibiotics, that kill the susceptible bacteria are called .................................................

2. Define bacteriostatic antibiotics:

3. What is mode of action of beta-lactams?

4. Antibiotics irreversibly bind to the 30S ribosome and freeze the 30S initiation complex (30S-mRNA-tRNA), so that no further initiation can occur. These antibiotics also slow down protein synthesis that has already initiated and induce misreading of the mRNA. This is characteristic

of ...........................................................

5. Describe mechanism of action of tetracycline.

6. Quinolones (chinolones) inhibit ..............................................................................................

7. Sulphonamid inhibits .......................................................................................

8. Explain principle of primary resistance of bacteria to antibiotics.

9. What antibiotic is nephrotoxic? ...............................................

10. Name 3 antituberculotics.

......................................    .........................................................    ................................................

 

Practical 7

1. Fill in the sentences:

The most commonly used solid culture medium suitable for cultivation of most bacteria is............

Selective solid medium used for cultivation of yeasts and molds is .............

2. What is the difference between Blood Agar and Chocolate Agar?

3. Fill in the sentences:

On Endo Agar can be evaluated: 1.........................

On Deoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) can be evaluated: 1.................. and 2.....................

On Hajn Agar (TSI – Triple Sugar Iron Agar) can be evaluated: 1.................., 2.................. and 3......................

4. Fill in the sentences:

Chocolate Agar is used for cultivation ..........

Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) is used for cultivation..........

Endo Agar is used for cultivation........

Deoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) is used for cultivation .........

Hajn Agar (TSI - Triple Sugar Iron Agar) is used for cultivation ...........

5. List and describe what types of hemolysis can be evaluated on blood agar?

6. Write the difference between pure microbial culture and mixed microbial culture?

7. What is the difference between selective culture medium and diagnostic culture medium?

8. What is the Rauss phenomenon and for bacteria whose genus is typical?

9. Some microorganisms are characterized by a characteristic odor or smell. What  odor or smell is typical of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans?

10. Fill in the sentences:

Liquid culture media are used for  .....

Semisolid culture media are used for ......

Solid culture media are used for ......

 

 

 

Week 5.-6. Microbiology and Immunology - self-study materials

IMMUNOLOGY:

COMPLEMENT

COMPLEMENT  online test for students

Serological reactions

 

MICROBIOLOGY

Pathogenesis of Microbial Infections

Endospores, capsules and metachromatic granules

 

 

 

QUESTIONS 5.-6. WEEK - Microbiology and Immunology self-study

IMMUNOLOGY

5. lecture

Describe the basic structure of the immunoglobulin IgG.

Which immunoglobulins cross the placenta?

Which immunoglobulin has the highest number of antigen binding sites?

Which MHC molecules are important in the presentation of viruses and which in the presentation of exogenous antigens?

What is the basic function of MHC molecules?

 

6.lecture

What is the difference between negative and positive thymocyte selection?

What is characteristic of mature B-lymphocytes?

Which types of somatically generated receptors are found on T and which on B-lymphocytes?

Which isotypes of antibodies dominate in the primary response?

Which isotypes of antibodies dominate in the secondary response?

 

5. practical

Ways of complement activation are:

What is the result of complement cascade activation?

Which components of complement are usually determined in practice?

Which method is used to determine the concentration of the most frequently determined components of complement?

What is a complement hemolytic unit?

 

6. practical

How do serological reactions differ according to the used antigen?

What is the evidence of acute disease?

What is example of direct agglutination?

What is zone of equivalence?

When is single radial immunodiffusion used and when is double radial immunodiffusion used?

 

 

Microbiology lecture 5

1. Name 3 sites in human body, wich are sterile in physiological conditions:

............................................................................

............................................................................

............................................................................

2. Name 3 bacteria wich are part of physiological flora in humans:

..............................................................................

................................................................................

................................................................................

3. Fill in the sentence : The quantity of bacteria in 1ml of urine that is very significant for infection

     (105of bacteria in 1 ml of urine)  is definition of ............................................................................... .

4. Fill in the sentence : When microbes are inoculated in other place with different composition of

    physiological flora or in place physiologically sterile, these microbes can cause the disease –

    bacteria become ............................................ .  Example : Escherichia coli - physiological flora in

    colon, but ........................................... in urinary tract.

5. Fill in the sentence :  Change in delicate equillibrum in composition of microflora is called

    ..................................................................................... .

 

Microbiology lecture 6

1. Fill in the sentence : Ability of microbes to cause the disease is .................................................. .

2. Fill in the sentence :  Quantitiy of pathogenicity, qualitative characteristic, determined by the

    infections dose is .......................................................... .

3. Fill in the sentence :  Low virulent bacteria that cause the disease mostly when non specific

    immunity is commpromised are called ................................................................................. .

4. Fill in the sentence :  Bacteria that cause the disease in immunologically competent persons and if

    specific immunity is not present are called ........................................................................... .

5. Name routes of transmission of exogenous bacteria:

   ...........................................................

   .............................................................

   .............................................................

 

Microbiology practical 5

1. Characterize the bacterial capsule – its composition and function.

2. Fill in the sentence: The method used for staining of bacterial capsules is called .......

3. Fill in the sentence: Most encapsulated bacteria produce .......... capsules, with the exception of those Bacillus spp. which produce  .......... capsules.

4. Fill in the sentence: In staining of encapsulated microorganisms – bacteria, by the method used for staining of bacterial capsules, the capsules of bacteria will appear ...... under the light microscope.

5. Describe Klebsiela pneumoniae in a fixed smear, stained by the method used for staining of bacterial capsules under the light microscope.

 

Microbiology practical 6

1. Characterize the bacterial spores – structure, function/importance.

2. Which bacteria can form spores? (write examples)

3. Fill in the sentences:

The proces of formation of spore from a vegetative bacterial cell is called .....

The proces of transformation of spore into a vegetative bacterial cell is called .....

4. Fill in the sentence: In staining of spore-forming bacteria, by the Gram stain procedure, the spores of bacteria will appear.... under the light microscope.

5. Fill in the sentence: In staining of spore-forming bacteria, by the Wirtz-Conklin stain procedure, the bodies of bacteria are stained ...... and spores are stained ...... under the light microscope.

6. Fill in the sentence: The method used for staining of bacterial metachromatic granules is called .......

7. Characterize the bacterial granules – structure, function/importance.

8. Describe Corynebacterium diphteriae in a fixed smear, stained by the method used for staining of bacterial metachromatic granules under the light microscope.

QUESTIONS - SELFSTUDY OF IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY

IMMUNOLOGY(WEEK 1-4)

 

1. lecture

What are types of immunity?

What are the two types of adaptive immunity?

How are differences in innate and adaptive mechanisms?

Two types of receptors important in recognition of foreign:

Define what is pattern recognition receptors and somaticallly generated receptors:

 

2. lecture

Bariers that belong to the 1. defence mechanism are:

Why is physiological microflora important?

Write cells that belong to myeloid line:

Write cells that belong to lymphoid line:

What is eumicrobia and dysmicrobia?

 

3. lecture

Define PAMP:

Define PRR:

What belong to preformed receptors?

State 3 ways of complement activation:

Receptors of NK cells that recognise changes on self cells molecules (after viral infection or cancer changes) are:

 

4. lecture

2 major signs of specific immunity are:

What are the ready and present mechanisms to protect against microbes?

How do B and T cells differ in surface molecules?

State the function of antibodies:

Reaction of antigen with antibody differs according to the type of antigen into:

 

2. practical

What are the principal classes of lymphocytes?

How do they differ in function?

What is a rosette?

Cells concentrated within the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and within the deep layers of the skin.  These cells release histamine and they are:

Large, long-lived phagocytes which capture foreign cells, digest them,and present protein fragments (peptides) from these cellss and manifest them on their exterior. They are strategically located in lymphoid tissues, connective tissues and body cavities. They are:

 

3. practical

What is the role of neutrophils?

What is the role of macrophages?

Why is opsonisation important in process of phagocytosis?

Write steps of phagocytosis:

How is phagocytosis activity and index calculated?

 

4. practical

Bacteria used in determination of lysozyme is called:

Target of lysozyme on bacterial cells is:

Lysozyme is effective against bacteria:

Bactericidal activity of the serum is used to analyze part of immunity:

Lysozyme is a part of immunity:

 

MICROBIOLOGY (week 1-4)

 

1. Structure of bacterial cell.

- Describe differences between procaryotic and eucaryotic cell.

- What is function of cytoplasmic membrane?

- Describe structure of peptidoglycan.

- Outer membrane is a part of cell wall of .................. bacteria.

- Forms of cell wall free bacteria growing from normal bacteria during infection, or in special

  condition are called........................... .

 

2. Physiology and metabolism of bacterial cell.

- Name groups of bacteria according to oxygen requirement.

- What are major processes of metabolism of glucose in bacterial cells?

- Name phases of bacterial growth curve.

 

3. Genetics of bacterial cell.

- What is circular chromosome?

- What is plasmid?

- What is large plasmid?

- What is operon?

- What is mutation?

- Describe process of conjugation.

 

4. Pathogenic potencial.

 - Structures  responsible for adherence and colonisation of host are .........................

- Ways of acquirement of infection are.......................

- Characterize inapparent disease.

- Pathogenity is ............................................ .

- Characterize primary pathogenic bacteria.

 

 

Conditions for requirements in the Dpt. of Microbiology and Immunology of JFM CU in the academic period 2019/2020 for students studying in the English language

 

General medicine 

 

 

2VLS/LS

          Microbiology 1

- presence on practical (1absence)

- 1 test during the semester

H: Test 1)

2VLS/LS

          Immunology

- presence on practical (1absence)

- 1 test during the semester

- 2 oral presentations according the schedule

S: Exam 1) or 2)

3VLS/ZS

          Microbiology 2

- presence on practical (1absence)

- 1 test during the semester

- 2 oral presentations according to the schedule

S: Exam 1) or 2)

 

1) Presence on 2 lectures is evaluated with one point. The student can get points during the study period that will be added to the exam test if the minimal required value for passing (60%)  is reached.

2)The oral exam consists of 4 questions. Each one is evaluated separately. No question could be graduated Fx for successfull exam

 

Martin 12. 2. 2020

Doc. MUDr. Elena Nováková, PhD.,

Head of Dpt. of Microbiology and Immunology of JFM CU